Cache-Control: public, max-age=1024000 Occupations


I have had this list sitting on my hard disk for a while now and I can't remember where I got it. There is a very similar, although not identical, list produced as part of the 1891 London Census.

Since this is a pre-Victorian site I have removed some of the more obvious anachronisms such as Daguerreotype Artists. (Louis Daguerre did not present his radical new photographic technique to the public until 1839). Similarly Zoetrope Makers had to go.

On the other hand, the Montgolfier's historical balloon flight took place in 1783 so I have retained Aeronauts. Enginemen do not appear until the Industrial Revolution and so are OK for the latter part of the century but not the beginning thereof.

I'm not sure about the Archil Makers or the Antigropelos Makers but they are such wonderful words I am keeping them in anyway. It's my site. I can do what I like.

ACATERsupplied food provisions, e.g. a ships chandler
ACCOUCHEUR / ACCOUCHEUSone who assisted women in childbirth
ACCOUTREMENT MAKER / ACCOUTREsupplier of military accessories
ACKERMAN / ACREMANploughman, an oxherder
ACTUARYkept public accounts of business
ADMINISTRATORdirected the affairs of another
ADVOCATE DEPUTEScottish law officer who could act a public prosecutor
ADVOWEEnormally a nobleman, who had the right to present a clergyman to a benefice
AERONAUTballoonist or a trapeze artist in the circus or music halls
AFFEERORofficial in the manorial courts who assessed the monetary penalty and also collected taxes and dues and were also called Assessor
AGISTERofficial of the Royal Forests or in the New Forest it is the title for the one in charge of the ponies
ALABASTERERworked with alabaster
ALBLASTEREcrossbow man
ALCHEMISTmedieval chemist who claimed to be able to turn base metals into gold
ALDERMANsenior councillor one position down from Mayor in the local council
ALE-CONNER / ALE FOUNDERofficial who tested quality and measure of ale served in public houses
ALE DRAPERseller of ale
ALE TASTERtested ale and beer for quality first recorded in 1377 in London. Appointed by the Manor and forerunner of the Inspector for Weights & Measures
ALE TUNNERemployed by the brewery to fill ale casks (tuns} with ale
ALEWIFEwoman who keeps an alehouse or tavern
ALL SPICEname for a grocer
ALMANAC MANofficial appointed by the Court of Sewers who warned the inhabitants of the Trent River area of higher than normal tides
ALMONERgave out alms or charity to the poor on behalf of the parish
ALMSMANreceived alms
ALNAGERofficial who examined the quality of woolen goods and stamped them with the town seal of approval
AMANUENSISsecretary or stenographer
AMBER CUTTERcut ambergris
AMBER & JET CUTTERcut and polished amber for jewelry
AMBLERofficer of the Royal Stable who broke in horses
AMEN MANparish clerk
ANCHOR SMITHmade anchors
ANCHORESSfemale hermit or religious recluse
ANCHORITEmale hermit or religious recluse
ANILEPMANsmallholder (tenant of the manor)
ANGLE IRON SMITHmade angle iron ie. flat iron bars bent at right angles lengthways
ANKLE BEATERyoung person who helped to drive the cattle to market
ANNATTO MAKERworked in the manufacture of dyes for paint or printing
ANTIGROPELOS MAKERmade waterproof leggings
ANVIL SMITHmade anvils and hammers for blacksmiths
APOTHECARYprepared and sold medicines or drugs; pharmacist
APPARITORofficial who summoned witnesses in the ecclesiastical courts
APPRENTICEwas bound to a skilled worker for a specified time to learn a trade
APRONEERterm used in London for a shopkeeper
ARCHIL MAKERmade a violet dye from lichens, used in the textile industry
ARKWRIGHTskilled craftsman who produced "arks" (wooden chests or coffers)
ARMIGERsquire who carried the armour of a knight
ARMOURERmade suits of armour or plates of armour for buildings or ships etc.
ARTIFICERsoldier mechanic who does repairs
ASSAYERdetermined the proportions of metal in ore
ASSAY MASTERdetermined the amount of gold or silver to go in coins
AUGER MAKERmade the carpenters augers (used for boring holes in wood)
AULNAGERsee Alnager
AVENATOR (PLANTIFENE)hay and forage merchant
AVOWRYterm for the lord of the manor
AXEL TREE MAKER / AXEL TREE TURNERmade axels for coaches and wagons
BACKMAKERmade "backs", vats, tubs, a Cooper
BACK'US BOYkitchen servant (from "back of the house")
BACK WASHERemployed to clean the wool in the worsted manufacturing industry
BADGERlicensed pauper who wore a badge with the letter P on it and could only work in a defined area (the term "Badgering comes from this"). A corn miller or dealer or an itinerant food trader
BADGY FIDDLERboy trumpeter in the military
BAGMANtravelling salesman
BAGNIOKEEPERn charge of a bath house or brothel
BAILIFF / BAILIE / BAILLIE / BAILLEEofficer of the sheriff, a land steward acting on behalf of the Landowner or Landlord and in Scotland a magistrate of the burgh, also looked after the fishing rights on certain rivers
BAIRMAN / BAREMANpauper or beggar
BALERbales hay and in the mills one who bailed wool or cotton goods
BALISTERarcher most commonly a crossbowman
BALLAST HEAVERloaded ballast into the hold of empty ships
BALLARD MASTERin charge of loading the ballast into the hold of empty ships
BALLER / BALLER UPassisted the potter by measuring out the balls of clay
BAL MAIDENfemale mine worker who worked on the surface (also a Pit Brow Lass)
BAND FILERmetal worker in the gun making industry
BANDSTERbound the wheat sheaves after harvest
BANG BEGGARofficer of the parish who controlled the length of stay of any stranger to the parish
BANKERdug trenches and ditches to allow drainage of the land, placing the surplus earth in banks around the edge
BANKSMANemployed in the mining industry being in charge of the cages at the pit head (sometimes known as a bank manager)
BARBER / BARBER SURGEONa barber also a surgeon (an Act was passed that limited Barbers to hair-cutting, shaving, dentistry and blood letting in the 18th century)
BARDpoet or minstrel
BAREMANbeggar or pauper
BARGEE / BARGEMANworked on or owned and operated a barge
BARGE MATENaval officer
BARILLA MANUFACTURERmade barilla, a substance obtained from burning saltworts, the resulting mixture of sodium salts being used in the glass and ceramics industry
BARKEEPERanother name for a tollkeeper
BELHOSTEtavern keeper.
BARTONERin charge of the monastic farm, also known as a barton
BASIL WORKERworked with sheep and goat skins
BASKETMANmade baskets and furniture from wicker, and also employed to empty the basket of coal being offloaded from the colliers into the barges
BASS / BAST DRESSERemployed in dressing fibre or matting
BATHING MACHINE PROPRIETORowned and hired the changing huts used at the seaside in the by bathers
BATMANofficers servant in the army
BATT MAKERmade the wadding used in quilt and mattress making
BATTLEDORE MAKERmade the beaters used on clothes carpets etc to remove the dust (later made the paddles used in washing machines)
BAYWEAVERwho wove bay (a fine woollen fabric also known as baize)
BEADLE / BEDEL / BEDELLofficer of the parish whose principle duty was to keep order, also was the town crier
BEADMAN / BEADSMAN / BEDESMANemployed to pray for his employer, inhabitant of an almshouse / poorhouse / hospital or tenant employed by the manor for a specific service
BEAD PIERCERemployed to drill the holes in beads
BEAMERwinds the warp on the roller before putting it on the loom in the textile industry
BEARERworked underground carrying the coal to the bottom of the pit shaft and placed it in the containers for uplifting to the surface
BEATERcleansed and thickened the cloth by treading it underwater with fullers earth (aka Fuller)
BEAVERmade felt used in hat making
BEDRALin Scotland a minor church official
BEDWEVEREmade the webbing for bed frames and also a one who wove quilts
BEESKEPMAKERmade beehives
BEETLERoperated a beetling machine, used in the textile trade for embossing fabric
BELL HANGERinstalled bells in churches
BELLMANemployed as a watchman or town crier or who worked for the post office and collected letters for the mail coach by walking the streets and ringing a bell
BELLOWFARMERresponsible for the care and maintenance of the church organ
BELLOWS MAKERmade bellows used for organs or blacksmiths fires
BELLY BUILDERbuilt and fitted the interiors of pianos
BENDERcut leather
BESSWARDENappointed by the parish to look after its animals
BESOM MAKERmade brooms
BIDDYfemale servant usually of Irish stock
BILLIER / BILLYMANoperated a Billy Roller, a machine used in the cotton industry to prepare the cotton for spinning
BILL POSTERput up notices, signs and advertisements
BINDERbound items, e.g., books, hats etc .
BIRD BOYemployed to scare away birds from crops
BIRD CATCHERcaught birds for selling
BIRDS NEST SELLERsold bird nests collected from the wild complete with eggs which were then hatched by domestic birds and sold as pets
BIRLYMANin Scotland a ground officer or parish arbiter
BLACK TRAY MAKERmade Japanned trays
BLACKING MAKERmade polish for shoes
BLACK BORDERERmade black edged stationery for funerals
BLADESMITHswordmaker or knife maker
BLAXTER / BLEACHERbleached cloth or paper pulp
BLENTONISTwater diviner
BLINDSMANemployed by the Post Office to deal with incorrectly addressed letters and parcels
BLOCKCUTTER / BLOCKERmade wooden blocks used in the hat trade or laid down the blocks on which a ships keel was laid
BLOCK MAKERengraved the blocks used in the printin
BLOCK PRINTERprinter who used wooden blocks for printing
BLOODMAN / BLOODLETTERused leeches for letting blood, this was thought to be a cure for many ailments
BLOOMERproduced iron from ore, a bloom smithy
BLOWERglass blower, one who operated a "blowing machine" used to clean and separate fibres in the textile trade, one who operated the bellows at a blacksmiths
BLOWFEEDERfed the fibres into a "blowing machine"
BLUESTOCKINGfemale writer
BLUFFERinnkeeper or landlord of a pub
BOARDING OFFICERinspected ships before entering port
BOARDMANtruant officer who checked school attendance. a tenant of manorial land who paid rent by maintaining the manor's table
BOARDWRIGHTmade tables and chairs aka carpenter
BOATMANworked on a boat, predominately on rivers and canals also the name given to a boat repairer
BOATSWAINship's officer in charge of riggings & sails
BOBBERwho polished metals one who helped to unload fishing boats
BOBBIN CARRIERworked in spinning and weaving sections of the mills
BOBBIN TURNERmade the bobbins used in the spinning and weaving industry
BOBBYpoliceman usually of constable rank
BODEYS / BODY MAKERmade bodices for womens garments
BODGERcraftsman who made wooden chair legs and the spars and usually worked in the actual woodland that they cut the timber in
BOILERMAKERworked with metal in any industrial setting
BOILER PLATERmade rolled iron plate used to make boilers for steam engines etc
BOLLlooked after power looms in the weaving industry
BOLTERsifted meal
BONDAGERfemale worker on a farm who was bonded
BONDMANbonded to a master for the purpose of learning a skill or trade
BONDSMANstood bond or surety for another where a bond was required by law
BONE BUTTON TURNERmade buttons using a lathe
BONE LACE MAKERmade pillow lace
BONE MOULD TURNERmade the moulds for button manufacturers
BONE PICKERcollected rags and bones aka Rag and Bone Man
BONESETTERset broken bones
BONIFACEkeeper of an inn
BOOK GILDERdecorated books with gold leaf
BOOKHOLDERprompter in the theater
BOOK KEEPERlooked after the accounts for businesses
BOONMASTERsurveyor of roads with the responsibilities of maintaining and repairing the road
BOOTBINDERemployed to operate the machines which bound footware
BOOT CATCHERservant at inn who pulled off traveler's boots
BOOT CLOSERworked in the shoe trade stitching together all the parts of a shoe upper
BOOTHMANcorn merchant
BORLERwho made cheap coarse clothing
BORSHOLDERregional name (Kent) for a constable
BOTCHERtailor or cobbler
BOTTILER / BOTTLERmade leather containers for holding liquids eg wine flasks or water bottles
BOTTLE BOYpharmacists assistant
BOTTOM MAKERmoulded the bottoms for saggers in the pottery industry
BOTTOM KNOCKERsagger makers assistant in the pottery industry
BOTTOMERworked down the pits moving the ore etc to the bottom of the shaft for removal
BOWDLERworked with iron ore
BOWKERbleached yarn. A local term in some parts of Lancashire for a butcher
BOWLERmade bowls and dishes and also a term used for those who made the rounded part of spoons before casting
BOWLMAN / BOWLWOMANdealer in crockery
BOWLMINDERin charge of the vats used for washing raw wool before processing
BOWYER / BOWERmade bows used in archery
BOZZLERparish constable
BRACHYGRAPHERshorthand writer
BRAIDERmade cord by twisting threads or strips of leather
BRAILLERmade girdles
BRAKEMAN / BRAKESMANoperated the winch at the pit head or operated the braking mechanism on trains and trams
BRAZIERworker with brass
BREWSTERfemale brewer or brewer
BRIGHTSMITHmetal worker
BROOM-DASHERdealer in brooms
BROOM SQUIREbroom maker
BROW GIRLfemale employed at the pit head
BROWNSMITHworks with copper or brass
BUCKLE TONGUE MAKERmade the metal points that go in the holes of a belt
BUCKRAM MAKERworked with buckram (used in stiffening materials) e.g. belts, lapels and collars
BUCK WASHERlaundress
BUDDLEBOYemployed to use and maintain the vats used in the lead and tin mines for washing the ore
BUDDLERwomen and children who washed the ore at the copper mines in Allihies, Berehaven
BUFFALO SOLDIERsoldier serving in a black regiment in the US Army in the West
BULLWHACKERoxen driver
BUMBOAT MANmet ships at anchor with goods for passengers and crew to purchase
BUMMERarmy deserter
BUMMAREEmiddle man between the wholesaler and the retailer at the fish markets
BUNTERfemale rag & bone collector
BURGESSrepresented a borough at official levels BURELER - made borel, a woollen cloth with a coarse feel
BURLERquality inspector for clothing
BURMAIDENchambermaid or lady-in-waiting
BURNEMANcarrier of barm or water for brewers
BURYE MANgrave digger
BUSHELERtailor's helper
BUSS MAKERmaker of guns
BUSKERhair dresser
BUTNERbutton maker
BUTTER CARVERmade imprints in butter pats
BUTTON BURNISHERbutton polisher
BUTTYnegotiated mining contracts and supplied the labor
CADDY BUTCHERbutcher that dealt in horse meat
CADDIEmessenger or errand boy
CAFFLERrag and bone collector
CAINERmade walking sticks
CAIRDanother term for a tinker
CALCINERburnt bones to make powdered lime
CALENDERone who listed documents
CALENDERER / CALENDERMAN / CALENDER WORKERoperated a machine which pressed using two large rollers (calendar) used to press and finish fabrics or paper
CALICO PRINTERdyed and coloured calico
CAMBRIC MAKERmade a fine linen or cotton fabric called cambric
CAMISTERminister of the cloth
CANDLE MAKER / CANDLERwho made and sold candles
CAMERISTlady's maid
CAMLET MERCHANTseller of camlet, cloth used to make cloaks & petticoats
CANDY MANtravelling candy salesman and also slang name for a bailiff
CANER / CHAIR BOTTOMERone who made the seats for chairs out of woven cane
CANNALLERcanal boat worker
CANTERreligious speaker who uses cant
CANVASERone who made canvas
CAPERcap maker
CAPILLAIRE MAKERone who made orange flavoured syrup
CAPPER / CAP MAKERmade caps usually worn by the working class
CAPTAINin charge of a ship or a group of soldiers and also term for an overseer
CARDROOMERterm for anyone who worked in the carding room of the mills
CARDERcards wool
CARDMAKERmaker of cards or instruments for combing wool
CARMAN / CHARMAN / CARTER / CARRIERone who drove a vehicle used to transport goods
CARD NAILER / NAILORAmaintained the teeth (nails) on the carding machine used for preparing wool and cotton for weaving
CARTERone who carries or conveys in or as if in a cart
CART WHEELERone who made cart wheels
CARTOMANCERfortune teller who used cards
CARTWRIGHTmaker of carts & wagons
CASHMARIEone who sold fish usually at inland markets
CASTER / CASTORAmade small bottles used for sprinkling salt, pepper, sugar etc
CASTRATORwho castrated farm animals aka gelder
CATCHPOLE / CATCHPOLLAsheriff's assistance or bailiff
CATECHISTAteacher of religion
CATTLE JOBBERbuys and sells cattle
CAULKERfilled up cracks (in ships or windows) or seams to make them watertight
CEILERputs up the ceilings in buildings
CELLARMANlooked after the beer, wines and spirits in public houses or the warehouse
CEMMERhand combed the yarn before weaving
CHAFF CUTTERmade chaff by cutting straw
CHAFFERERdealer in chaff
CHAIR BODGERtravelling chair repairman
CHAISE MAKERmade carts from wicker
CHALONERdealer in shalloon, a material made in Chƒlons
CHAMBERLAINsteward to either royalty or nobility, in charge of the household
CHAMBERMAIDfemale servant attending to bedrooms in houses or inns
CHAMBER MASTERshoemaker that worked from home as an outworker or selling direct
CHAUNTERstreet entertainer who sung ballads
CHANDLERcandle seller, grocer, provisioner, usually associated with provisioning ships
CHANTY MANsailor that led the singing of shanties on board ship
CHAPELERmade and sold hats CHAPMAN / COPEMAN / PETTY CHAPMAN / CEAPMAN - dealer or peddler of goods usually itinerant going from village to village.
CHARCOAL BURNERmade charcoal usually in the woods where the trees were cut
CHARTMASTERmiddleman that negotiated mining contracts and supplied the labour
CHARWOMANcleaning woman
CHATELAINEmistress of a castle or house
CHIFFONIERwig maker or ragpicker
CHILDBED LINEN WAREHOUSE KEEPER / DEALERhired bedlinen for childbirth as most children were born at home
CHIMNEY SWEEPchimney cleaner
CHINGLORrooftiler who used wooden shingles
CHIPshipwright or carpenter
CHIPPERS LABOURERassistant to a shipwright or ships carpenter
CHIROPODISTtreats diseases of the feet & hands
CHIRUGION or CHIRURGEONapothecary or surgeon
CHOWDERfish monger
CHRONOLOGISTrecorded official events of historical importance
CINDER WENCHfemale who collected the cinders from gas works and sold them door to door
CLAPMANtown crier
CLASSMANunemployed labourer
CLAY CARRIERassistant to the shot firer in the pits
CLAYMAN / CLEYMANworked in the clay pits usually preparing the clay for making bricks and also one who coated the outside of buildings with clay to make them water proof
CLERKclergyman or cleric
CLICKERworked in the shoe trade cutting out the uppers made the shoelace holes and one in charge of the final stage of layout before printing in printing industry
CLIPPER / CLIPPER ON / CLIPPER OFFattached the coal carts to the wire or rope which was used to drag the carts to and from the coal face
CLOD HOPPERploughman
CLOGGERmaker of wooden shoes
CLOTH LAPPERtook the cloth from the carding machine readied it for the next process
CLOTH LINTER / CLOTH PICKERremoved unwanted threads and lint from the finished material
CLOTHIER / CLOTHESMAN / CLOTHMANwho made or sold clothes
CLOUTER / CLOWERmade nails also another term for a shoemaker for the former term
COACHMAN / COACH DRIVERdrove any coach
COAL BACKERcarried the sacks of coal from the coal barge to the coal wagons
COAL BURNERmade charcoal
COAL DRAWERworked in the mines pushing or dragging the coal carts the the bottom of the pit
COAL HEAVERunloaded coal COALMAN / COAL MERCHANT / COAL HIGGLER - sold coal usually from a horse and cart, house to house.
COALMETERmeasured the coal
COAL RUNNERattended the coal carts underground
COAL WHIPPERunloaded coal from ships using baskets attached to a simple form of crane
COAST SURVEYOR / WAITERcustoms officer who watched over the ofloading off goods on the coast
COBLEMANused a flat bottomed boat for fishing
COD PLACERput fire proof containers which held the pottery for firing into the kiln
COINERworked at the mint stamping out coins
COLLAR MAKERmade horse collars and one who made shirt collars
COLLIERcoal miner, a coal merchant or one who worked on the coal barges
COLONUSLatin for farmer or husbandman
COLPORTEURtravelling Bible or religious book salesman
COLOUR MANmixed the dyes in the textile trade and also assistant to a house painter
COMBER or COMBEREcombs wool
COMB MAKERmade combs either for the textile industry for combing wool etc. or the maker of hair combs
COMPOSITORset the type ready for printing
CONDER / CONNERgave steering instructions to the steersman and also gave directions to inshore fisherman of fish movements on shoals (usually from the top of cliffs or rocks)
CONEY CATCHERrabbit catcher
CONNERinspector or tester
COOPER or CUPERmaker of barrels
COPEMAN / COPERdealer in goods and also dishonest dealer in horses in the latter case
COPPERSMITHworked with copper
CORACLE MAKERmade coracles, a small round boat used for fishing
CORDINER / CORDWAINER / CORVINER / CORVISORoriginally term used for one who worked with Cordovan (a special leather from Spain) but later term used for shoemaker
COSTERMONGERfruit seller
COSTER WIFEfemale fruit seller
COUPERone who buys & sells
COWHERDcow tender
COWKEEPERone who kept one or more cows (a common source of livelihood in cities) when a cow was kept in the back yard of a house, providing milk which was sold at the front door or window, forerunner of the local dairy
COXWAINship or boat helmsman
CRIERlaw court officer, auctioneer, town announcer
CRIMPERmember of navy press gang
CROFTERtenant of a small piece of land
CROPPERtenant who is paid with a share of the crop
CURERcures tobacco
CURRIERcures or tans hides
CUSTOMERcustoms tax collector
CUTLERknife seller or sharpener
DAIRYMANworker or owner of a dairy farm or seller of dairy products
DAMSTERbuilder of dams for logging purposes
DANTERfemale overseer in the winding rooms of a silk mill
DATELER / DAY MAN / DAYTALEMANcasual worker, usually employed by the day
DECIMER / DOZENERelected by the householders in a street to act as their representative at the borough's Court Leet
DECOYMANemployed to decoy the wild fowl, animals etc into a trap or within shooting range
DECRETISTknowledgeable in decrees, decretals
DEEMER / DEEMSTER / DEMSTER / DEMPSTERjudge, usually in the Channel Isles or Isle of Man
DELVERdug ditches
DEPATERprecious metal refiner
DEPUTYsafety officer for the pit crew in the mining industry
DERRICKMANworked on an oil well handling the tubes and rods used in drilling
DEVILprinter's errand boy
DEVILLERoperated the devil, a machine that tore rags used in the textile industry
DEY WIFEfemale dairy worker
DIKEMAN / DYKEMANhedger or ditcher
DIPPERwho worked in the pottery trade and was responsible for the glazing of items
DISHER / DISH THROWERwho made bowls and dishes
DISH TURNERwho made wooden bowls or dishes
DISTILLERmaker of alcoholic beverages
DISTRIBUTORparish official attached to the workhouse / poorhouse who looked after the secular needs of the poor
DOCKER / DOCK WALLOPERdock worker, longshoreman
DOCK MASTERin charge of a dockyard
DOG LEECHveterinarian
DOG-WHIPPERone who drove dogs away in a village
DOMESTIChousehold servant
DONKEY BOY / DONKEY MANdriver of a carriage for passengers
DOOR KEEPERguard, janitor, or porter
DOUBLERwho operated a machine used to twist together strands of fibre (cotton, wool etc)
DOWSER / DIVINERwater finder
DRAGMANfisher man who fished by dragging a net along the bottom of the water
DRAGOMANwho acted as interpreter or guide in Turkish or Arabic
DRAGSMANdriver of a small stage coach or carriage used for public transport or private hire
DRAGOONmounted infantryman
DRAINERwho made drains
DRAPERdealer in fabrics and sewing needs
DRAWBOYweavers assistant in the shawl making mills , they sat atop the looms and lifted the heavy warps.
DRAYMANcart driver
DREDGERMANone who in a boat to collect the bits and pieces that had fallen overboard from other vessels which then were sold (London occupation)
DRESSERone who dresses another, surgeon's assistant and also one who operated a machine which prepared threads in the textile industry
DRESSING MACHINE MAKERwho made sewing machines
DRIFT MAKERAwho made drift nets, used in the fishing industry
DRIPPING MANdealer in dripping (the fat collected during the cooking of meats)
DRIVERslave overseer
DROVERsheep or cattle driver
DRUMMERtravelling salesman
DRY SALTERdealer in pickles, dried meats, and sauces or a dealer in dyes and colours used in the dying trade
DUBBEREcloth dubber, i.e., one who raises the nap of cloth
DUFFERpeddler of cheap goods
DUSTMAN / DUSTBIN MANcollected domestic refuse
DRY STONE WALLER (DRY STANE DYKER in Scottish)built stone walls usually using the stones removed from the fields as building materials. The art was in not using any cement or mortar and generally not cutting the stone, but being able to see where various stones would fit together
DYERemployed in the textile mills to colour fabric prior to weaving
DYKERScottish term for a stonemason
EALDORMANn official of the shire courts who acted as the King's deputy taking payment from the profits of the court
EBONITE TURNERone who worked with ebonite or vulcanite, making combs or ornaments etc
EARTH STOPPERone who plugs up animal holes
EGG FACTOR / EGGLERegg or poultry dealer
ELEPHANTS TEETH DEALERwho dealt in ivory ornaments etc
ELLERMAN / ELLIMANwho sold oil used for lamps and known as an oilman
EMBOSSERwho moulded or carved designs that were raised above the surface of the material
EMPRESARIOland broker, settlement scheme promoter, showman
ENGINEMANemployed at a mine to be in charge of the machinery used to crush the ore
ENGINE TENTERwho operated the machine which stretched the cloth whilst drying in a woollen mill
ENSIGNcommissioned officer in the navy
ENUMERATORwho collected the information for the census from the householder and recorded it
EQUERRYofficer of the royal household usually responsible for the royal horses
ESQUIREone who attended a knight, which later became a title for a man of standing in society
ESTAFETTEmounted courier
EWE HERDshepherd
EXCHEQUERrevenue collector
EXCISEMANexcise tax collector
EYERone who made eyes in needles used for sewing. Sometimes called a Holer
FABERartisan or workman
FACTORan agent employed by merchants to transact business of buying and selling and a Scottish term for the steward of an estate responsible for collection of land rents
FAGETTERmade up faggots into bundles, seller of firewood
FAKERphotographic assistant who added colour to photographs by hand before colour film was available
FANCY-PEARL WORKERworked in mother-of-pearl making buttons or fancy goods
FANCY WOMANprostitute
FANNERgrain winnower
FANWRIGHTmaker and repairer of fans or winnowing baskets
FARANDMANtravelling merchant
FARMERoften descendant of the gentry and, ultimately, noble classes; usually having servants and farm workers, e.g., husbandmen, groomsmen, etc
FARRIER / FERROURhorse shoer or blacksmith
FAWKNERtrainer of falcons
FEAR-NOTHING MAKERweaver of special kind of thick woollen cloth known as fear-nought, used for protective clothing and lining portholes, walls, and doors of powder magazines on board ships.
FEATHER-DRESSERwho cleaned and prepared feathers for sale
FEATHERMANdealer in feathers and plumes
FEATHER-WIFEwoman who prepared feathers for use
FELL MONGERremover of hair or wool from hides in leather making
FELTERworker in the hatting industry
FERRETERdealer in or manufacturer of ferret, ie. silk tape
FETTLERcleaned the machinery in woollen mills, removing accumulated fibres, grease, etc., sharpened the fustian cutters knives or needlemaker who filed the needle to a point
FEWSTERmaker of saddletrees
FEWTERERkeeper of hounds, for hunting or coursing
FILIBUSTERAmerican mercenaries in South America, gun runners
FILLERwho filled bobbins in mills
FINE DRAWERemployed in tailoring to repair tears in the cloth (invisible mending)
FINISHERoperated machine giving final touches to a manufactured article in various trades
FIREBEATERtended the boilers that powered the machinery in a cotton mill
FIREMANinspected for, and removed explosive gasses underground in mining or stoked the boilers on ships and locomotives
FIRST HANDsilk weaver who had his own loom (an outworker)
FISH FAGfemale fish monger
FITTERcoal broker
FLASHERspecialist process worker in the glass industry
FLATMAN / FLOATMANnavigated a flat, a broad flat-bottomed boat used for transport, especially in shallow waters
FLAXDRESSERprepared flax prior to spinning
FLESHMONGER / FLESHERbutcher or one who worked in a tannery
FLETCHERarrowsmith (from French fleche).
FLUSHERMANwho cleaned out water mains
FLYCOACHMANdriver of one-horse carriage hired by the day
FLYING STATIONERstreet broadsheet seller
FLYMANdriver of a light vehicle hired out for carriage of passenger or Theatre stage hand
FOGGERpeddler or low class lawyer
FOOT MAIDENfemale servant
FOOT MANservant who ran errands
FOOT PADrobber
FOOT-POSTletter carrier or messenger who travelled on foot
FOOT STRAIGHTENERone who assembled watch and clock dials in watchmaking
FORESTERgame warden or forest ranger
FORGEMANblacksmith or assistant (coachsmith 18th century Derbyshire)
FORGERblacksmith, worker at a forge
FOSSETMAKERwho made faucets for ale-casks, etc
FOWERstreet cleaner, sweeper
FRAME SPINNERworker on a loom
FRAMERone who frames houses
FRAMEWORKER KNITTERoperator of machine which made hosiery
FREEDMANone released from slavery
FRESERmaker of frieze, a rough plaster
FRESHWATER MANsailed boat on fresh water only or in the coastal trade
FRIPPERERbuyer & seller of old clothes
FRISEURhair dresser
FROBISHER / FURBISHERremover of rust, a polisher of metal, eg. armour
FRUITERERfruit seller
FRUITESTEREfemale fruit seller
FULLERcloth worker who shrinks, beats and presses the cloth
FUNAMBULISTtightrope walker
FURBISHERarmour polisher
FURRIERseller or maker of furs
FUSTIAN WEAVERmaker of corduroy
GABELERtax collector
GAFFERforeman of a work crew
GAFFMANa bailiff
GAGERtax collector of liquor taxes
GALVANISERiron worker who handled process of coating metal with zinc, to inhibit formation of rust
GAMESTERgambler or prostitute
GANGERoverseer or foreman from 1850 onwards
GANNEKERtavern keeper
GARTHMANowner or worker of a fish trap
GAS MANAGERforeman position in charge of checking for poisonous gas in coal mine shafts
GATHERERglassworker who inserted the blow iron into the molten glass ready for the blower
GATHERERS BOYheld a shovel to shield the gatherer's face from the heat
GATWARDgoat keeper
GAUGERcustoms official who measured the capacity of imported barrels of liquor in order to calculate the customs duty
GAVELLERusurer and in the Forest of Dean, an officer fo the Crown who granted gales or the right to work a mine and in Suffolk a harvest worker, usually female
GELDERcastrator of animals, especially horses
GEOMETERskilled in geometry
GERUND GRINDERLatin instructor
GILDERapplies gold leaf
GIMLERmachinist involved in making a gimp, a kind of card
GIRDLERleather worker who made girdles and belts, chiefly for the Army
GLASS COACHMANdriver of two-horse carriage hired out for the day
GLAZIERglass cutter or window classman
GLOVERone that makes or sells gloves
GOAT CARRIAGE MANdriver of small passenger carriage
GOLDSMITHmaker of gold articles, banker
GOOSE HERDtends geese
GORZEMANseller of gorse or broom
GRAFFERnotary or scrivener
GRAINERpainted wood to make it look like great and exotic woods
GRAVERcarver or sculptor, engraver of images or dockside worker who cleaned ship bottoms by burning and tarring
GRAZIERpastures and raises cattle
GREAVE / GRIEVEbailiff, foreman, sheriff
GREEN GROCERfruit and vegetable seller
GREENSMITHworker in copper or latten
GROUNDSEL & CHICKWEED SELLERstreetseller of common weeds, used to feed pet songbirds
GUINEA PIGan unattached, or roving person whose fee was usually a guinea
GUMMERone who improved old saws by deepening the cuts
GYPcollege servant especially one attending undergraduates
HABERDASHERseller of men's clothing
HACKERmaker of hoes
HACKLER / HACKMAN / HECKLERone who separated the coarse part of flax or hemp with a hackle, an instrument with teeth in linen industry
HACKNEY MANrenter of horses & carriages
HAIR SEATING & CURLED HAIR MERCHANTdealer in horse-hair stuffing used in upholstery
HAIRWEAVER / HAIRMANweaver of cloth composed wholly or partly of horsehair
HALBERT CARRIERsoldier or halberdier, armed with a halberd, a combination spear and battleaxe (a ceremonial officer)
HAMMERMANhammerer, a smith
HANDSELLERstreet vendor
HANDWOMANmidwife or female attendant
HARLOTvagabond, beggar, rogue, 14th century male servant, attendant or menial, and 15th century, loose woman
HARMER BECKconstable
HARPERperformer on the harp
HATCHLERcombed out or carded flax
HATTERmaker of or dealer in hats
HAYMONGERdealer in hay
HAYWARDfence viewer
HEALD KNITTERoperator of a machine which produced a jersey type of fabric as opposed to woven fabric
HECK MAKERmaker of a part of a spinning machine by which the yarn is guided to the reels
HEDGE LOOKERsupervised good repair of fence and enclosures
HEDGERhedge trimmer
HEELMAKERmade shoe heels
HELLIER / HILLIERtiler or slater
HELPER-UPyoung boy employed in Durham pits to help other workers
HEMPHECKLERflax worker
HENCHMAN / HENSMANhorseman or groom
HEWERminer who cut coal, stone, etc., a face worker in a mine
HIGGLERone who haggles or bargains or itinerant dealer, similar to a cadger
HIGHWAYMANrobber who preys on public roads
HINDfarm labourer
HIRED MANgardener, farmhand, or stableman
HOBBLERboat tower on a river or canal
HODSMANmason's assistant
HOGGARDpig drover
HONEY DIPPERextracted raw sewage from catch basins and out-houses
HOOKER16th century reaper, 19th century worker in textile industry who operated a machine which laid fabric flat in uniform folds of any required length
HOOPERmakes hoops for casks (not a cooper)
HORNERworker in horn making spoons, combs, or musical horns
HORSE COURSERowner of race horses
HORSE LEECHveterinarian, farrier
HORSE MARINEman-handled barges on canals when horses could not be used
HORSE-CAPPERdealer in worthless horses
HORSE-HAIR CURLERdressed horse hair which was used extensively in the upholstery trade
HOSIERretailer of stockings, socks, gloves, nightcaps
HOSTLERcares for horses, stableman, groom, repairer or railway engines
HOUSE JOINERhouse framer
HOUSE WRIGHThouse builder
HOTPRESSERworker in paper or textile industries where product was pressed between glazed boards and hot metal plates to obtain a smooth and shiny surface
HOYMANone who carries goods and passengers by water (Hoy - small coastal vessel or sloop)
HUCKSTERsells small wares
HUISSHERusher or door attendant
HURDLEMAN / HURDLERhedge-maker, of wattled framework fencing
HURRIERSterm applied to the girls aged 5-18 who were employed as coal-drawers in the coal industry
HUSBANDMANtenant farmer
HUSH SHOP KEEPERbrewed and sold beer without a license (usually as a side line)
ICEMANseller or deliverer of ice
IDLEMANgentleman of leisure
INFIRMARIANin charge of an infirmary
INTENDENTdirector of a public or government business
IRON FOUNDERone who founds or iron
IRON MONGERdealer in hardware made of iron (also known as a feroner)
IRON MASTERowner or manager of a foundry
IVORY WORKERSincluded makers of combs, boxes, billiard balls, buttons, and keys for pianofortes
JACKyoung male assistant, sailor, or lumberjack
JACK-FRAME TENTERcotton industry worker who operated a jack-frame, used for giving a twist to the thread
JACK-SMITHmaker of lifting machinery and contrivances
JAGGERcarrier, carter, pedlar or hawker of fish; 19th century, young boy in charge of 'jags'or train of trucks in coal mine; man in charge of pack horse carrying iron ore to be smelted
JAKES-FARMERone who emptied cesspools
JAPANNERone who covers with a hard brilliant coat of any of several varnishes
JERQUERcustom house officer who searched ships
JERSEY COMBERworker in woollen manufacture (Jersey - wool which has been combed but not spun into yarn)
JOBBERa buyer in quantity to sell to others, a pieceworker
JOBLING GARDENERone employed on a casual basis
JOBMASTERsupplied carriages, horses and drivers for hire
JOYNER or JOINERskilled carpenter
JONGLEURtravelling minstrel
JOURNEYMANone who served his apprenticeship and mastered his craft; properly, one who no longer is bound to serve for years but is hired day to day
JOUSTERfish monger
KEEKERcolliery official who checked quantity and quality of coal output or weighman
KEELER / KEELMANbargeman (from keel, a flat bottomed boat)
KEMPSTERwool comber
KIDDIERskinner or dealer in young goats
KILNERlimeburner, in charge of a kiln
KISSERmade cuishes and high armour
KNACKERharness maker, buyer of old horses and dead animals
KNAPPERSdressed and shaped flints into required shape and size
KNELLER / KNULLERchimney sweep who solicited custom by knocking on doors
KNOCKER-UPman paid to wake up northern mill and factory workers on early shifts
KNOLLERtoller of bells
LACE-DRAWERchild employed in lace work, drawing out threads
LACEMANdealer in lace, who collected it from the makers, usually only those who had bought his thread, and sold it in the lace markets
LACE-MASTER / MISTRESSemployed workers in factories or in their homes for the production of lace
LACE-RUNNERyoung worker who embroidered patterns on lace
LACEWOMANlady's maid
LAGRAETMANlocal constable (Law-Rightman)
LASTERshoe maker
LATTENERbrass worker
LANDWAITERcustoms officer whose duty was to wait or attend on landed goods
LAVENDERwasher woman
LAYERworker in paper mill responsible for a particular stage in paper-making process
LEAVELOOKERexamined food on sale at market
LEECH or SAWBONESphysician
LEGGERcanal boatman
LEIGHTONWARDgardener (leighton - a garden)
LIGHTERMANworker on a flat-bottomed boat
LIMNERilluminator of books, painter or drawer
LINENERlinen draper, shirtmaker
LINER / LYNERflax dresser
LINKERBOY / MANone who carried a link or torch to guide people through city streets at night for a small fee (had to be licensed to trade in early 19th century had and term later sometimes applied to general manservant )
LITTERMANgroom (of horses)
LOADSMANship's pilot
LOBLOLLY BOYship's doctor's assistant or errand boy
LOCK KEEPERoverseer of canal locks
LONG SONG SELLERstreet seller who sold popular songsheets printed on paper
LORIMERmaker of horse gear
LOTSELLERstreet seller
LUMPERdock labourer who discharged cargo of timber employed by a master lumper (not the Dock Company) or fine-grain saltmaker, from practice of moulding salt into lumps
LUM SWOOPERchimney sweep
LUNGSalchemist's servant whose duty was to fan the fire
LUTHIERmaker and repairer of stringed musical instruments
MADERERgathered and sold garlic
MAIDfemale domestic servant
MAIL GUARDarmed guard, frequently an ex-soldier, employed on the mail coach service
MAISE MAKERone who made measures for weighing herring catch
MALEMAKERmaker of 'Males' or travelling bags
MALSTERbrewer, maker or seller of malts
MANGLERworks a mangle
MANGLE KEEPERwoman who offered use of the mangle for a fee
MANGOslave dealer
MARBLERone who stained paper or other material, veined in imitation of marble
MARSHALLhorse doctor of shoesmith
MARSHMANpaid by various landowners to look after marshlands and tend the animals put to graze there for the season
MASHMAKERmaker of the mash-vats or mashels used for mixing malt
MASTERone of three grades of skill recognised by the Guild of Crafts
MASTER LUMPERcontractor of labourers at cheap rate of pay
MASTER MARINERship's captain
MEALMANdealer in meal or flour
MELDERcorn miller
MERCERcloth seller
MIDWIFEexperience woman who assists in child birth
MILLERcorn miller, cloth miller, saw miller
MILLERESSmiller's wife
MILLERS CARMANdrove carrier to deliver the flour or seed to the customers
MILLPECKsharpener of mill stones
MILLNERmaker of women’s' hats
MILLWRIGHTdesigner & builder of mills or mill machinery
MILSTONE INSPECTORvagrant, a gentleman of the road
MINTMAKER or MINTMASTERissuer of local currency
MOCADO WEAVERweaver of woollen cloth used for making clothes 16-17th century.
MONDAYMANone who worked for landowner on Mondays in lieu of rent
MONGER(i.e., fish) - dealer
MOULDERmaker of moulds or castings, brickmaker
MOUNTEBANKseller if ineffectual patent medicines
MUDLARKsewer cleaner, riverbank scavenger
MUFFIN MAKERmaker who made muffins
MUFFIN MANitinerant seller of muffins
MUGSELLERseller of cups, mugs
MULE MINDERminded the spinning mules in the cotton mills
MULETEERmule driver
MUSTARDER / MUSTARDMANmade and dealt in mustard
NAPERERroyal servant in charge of table linen
NARROW WEAVERweaver of ribbons, tapes, etc
NAVIGATORlaborer building canals or railways
NECKERworker responsible for the feeding of cardboard into the machine the makes boxes
NEDELLERneedle maker
NECESSARY WOMANservant responsible for emptying and cleaning chamber pots
NETTERnet maker
NIGHT SOILMAN / NIGHTMANone who emptied cesspits, ashpits and backyard toilets
NIGHTWALKERwatchman or bellman
NIPPERlorry boy, a young person employed by the carter or wagoner to assist with the collection and delivery of goods
NOON TENDERguarded the goods on the quay while the officers were a lunch
OILMANsold the oil for lamps
OLITORkitchen gardener (from Olitory—a kitchen garden)
ORDERLYsoldier who functioned as a servant for an officer
ORRERY MAKERmade a mechanical apparatus for showing the movements of the planets (named after the Earl of Orrery the inventor)
ORRICE WEAVERdesigner of lace patterns to be woven with silk thread and silk
OSIER PEELERremoved bark from willow rods or osiers which were used in basket weaving, usually women and children (also known as withy peelers)
OSTIARYmonastery door keeper
OUT CRIERauctioneer
OUTWORKERworker who carried on their occupation at home, e.g., cotton or woollen weavers but it applies to many occupations
OVERLOOKERsuperintendent or overseer, especially in the textile mills
OVERMANsupervisor in a colliery who checked the miners work and the quality of the mined coal
OWLERsheep or wool smuggler
OYSTER DREDGERmember of the crew on board an oyster fishing boat
PACKERpacks goods such as pickles or herring
PACKMANtravelled around carrying goods for sale in a pack
PACK THREAD SPINNERoperator of the machine which made thread or twine
PAD MAKERmade small baskets used for measuring
PAINTRESSwoman employed in the pottery industry to hand paint the finished articles
PAPER-STAINERone who made wallpaper
PALING MANseller of eels
PALISTERone who ensured the parks were safe and well kept
PALMERone who had been, or pretended to have been, to the Holy Land
PANNIER MANfish monger
PANNIFEXsomebody who worked in the cloth trade
PANSMITHmade pans ie a metal wor
PANTERkeeper of the pantry
PAPERERinserted the needles into the paper ready for sale in the needlemaking trade
PARDONERseller of indulgences
PARGETERapplied ornamental plaster to buildings
PARITORchurch officer who attended the magistrates and justices at court for the purpose of executing their orders
PARKERpark caretaker
PASSAGE KEEPERkept passages and alleys clean
PASTELERpastry chef
PATTEN MAKERclog maker or the person who made wooden soles (pattens) to fit under normal shoes to protect from wet and muddy ground
PAVER / PAVIOURlaid paving stones
PAVYLERput up pavilions or tents etc
PEELERpoliceman, constable, bobby (from Sir Robert Peel founder of the police force)
PELTERERone who worked with animal skins
PERCHEMEARone who made parchment
PEREGRINATORitinerant wanderer
PESSONERfish monger
PETTIFOGGERshyster lawyer
PETTY CHAPMANitinerant dealer in small goods, a pedlar
PHILOSOPHICAL INSTRUMENT MAKERone who made scientific instruments
PHRENOLOGISTdiviner of a person's character based on the bumps on a person's head
PICKERone who cast the shuttle on a loom
PIECENER / PIECERone who worked in a spinning mill, employed to piece together any threads which broke (usually a child or woman)
PIGMANone who sold crockery or bred or looked after pigs on the farm
PIKELET MAKERbaker who specialised in making pikelets (a small pancake or crumpet)
PIKEMANmiller's assistant
PIKERtramp or vagrant
PILOTship steersman
PINDERdog catcher
PINNERpin make
PINNER UPdressmakers assistant or one who sold broadsheets or ballads in the streets
PIT BROW LASSfemale worker who worked on the surface of the mines
PITMANcoal miner
PLAITERmaker of straw plaits used in making hats etc
PLAYDERERone who made plaid
PLAIN WORKERperformed plain sewing or needlework as opposed to an embroiderer
PLANKERone who planks or kneads the body of the hat during felting
PLOWWRIGHTmaker or repairer of plows
PLUMASSIER / PLUMERmade or sold plumes, ornamental feathers
POINTERsharpened needles or pins or lace maker
POINTMAKER / POINTMANmade the tips of laces
POINTSMANrailway worker who operated the points, used to change the line on which the train was travelling
POLDAVE WORKERmade poldave, a coarse fabric
POLEMANsurveyor's assistant
PONDERATORinspector of weights and measures
PORTABLE SOUP MAKERconverted soup into a dry form for transporting from place to place
PORTERdoor or gatekeeper
POSTILLIONattacher of extra horses to wagons & coaches to help them up hills
POST BOYcarried mail from town to town, guard who travelled on the mail coach or outrider who travelled with the stagecoach as a postillion
POSTERone who worked in the quarries breaking rocks
POTATO BADGERseller of potatoes
POT BOY / MANone who worked in public houses washing and removing dirty pots also did other menial tasks
POTTERmaker or seller of pottery
POTTER CARRIERchemist or pharmacist
POTTER THROWERpotter who used a wheel and therefore had to throw the clay
POULTERseller of poultry
POWER LOOM TUNERone who maintained the loom in mills
PRECEPTRESSschool mistress
PRICKERwitch hunter, pattern maker or a horseman
PRIG NAPPERhorse thief
PROCTORofficial of a university
PROP BOBBYworked in mines checking the pit props
PUDDLERworked clay into puddle, worked with puddle to make things water tight eg canal walls or worked in puddling iron
PUGGERproduce clay paste by treading like grapes, usually women and children in brick manufacturing
PUNKYchimney sweep
PUREFINDERold women and young girls who went about the streets gathering dog droppings which were used for tanning leather
PURSERship's officer in charge of provisions & accounts
PUTTER INput things in to some form of mechanised process
QUILLERone who operated a machine that wound yarn onto spools
QUILTER / QUILTRESSone who quilted material
QUISTERone who bleached things
RACK MAIDENgirl employed in the tin mines of Cornwall to dress the ore
RAFFMANone who dealt in raff (saleable rubbish)
RAFF MERCHANTseller of fibre used to make raffia bags etc
RAG CUTTERone who cut up rags into small pieces to be used for making paper etc
RAG GATHERERSemployed to clear the rags from the machinery in the mills (usually children)
RAG MANone who went from street to street collecting and selling old clothes and rags
RAG AND BONE MANone who went from street to street with a cart and collected any old rubbish, usually in exchange for a small item, e.g. a block of soapstone
RAG PICKERsorted through the left over rags to find re usable ones
RAKERstreet sanitation worker
RATONERrat catcher
RATTLEWATCHtown watchman
RECTIFIERone who distilled alcoholic spirits
REDARinterpreter of dreams
REEDERworked with reeds for hedging or thatching
REEDMAKERmade the pipe for a musical instrument or made a weavers implement (a reed) or reed cloth or the comb used in tapestry
REELERoperated the machine that wound the yarn onto the bobbin
REEVEchurch warden
REGISTRARofficial who registers events such as land purchases or births
RENOVATORone who repaired clothing
REVENUERtaxman who enforces tax laws on liquor
RICKMASTERCaptain of Horse
RIDDLERwool stapler
RIGGERhoist tackle worker; works on a ship's rigging
RIPPER / RIPPIERone who sold fresh water fish at the markets or maker and seller of baskets
RIVERMANworker on a river boat
ROCKMANworked in a quarry usually placing the charges on the rockface
ROCKGETTERrocksalt miner
ROLLER COVERERone who covered the rollers for the spinning process
ROLLEYWAY MANmaintained the underground road in the mines
ROLL TURNERcarder of wool, cotton etc into rolls prior to spinning
ROMAN CEMENTER / PLASTERERone who worked with roman cement used in stuccoing
ROPERmaker of rope or nets
ROVERarcher or operator of a machine used in cotton mills which prepared the carded fibre into rolls
RODMANsurveyor's assistant
RUBBISHER / RUBBLERsorted the small stones in the quarries
RUGMANdealer in rugs
RUNNERsmuggler, messenger and ironically one who worked for the magistrate best remembered as Bow Street Runners
RUSTLERcattle thief
SADDLERone who made saddles, harnesses, horse collars, bridles
SADDLE TREE MAKERone who made the frames for saddles that the saddler used
SAGGER MAKERone who made the fireclay containers in which the stoneware was placed ready for firing
SALT BOILERone who obtained salt by boiling water
SALTER / DRYSALTER / SAUCERone who made or dealt in salt
SALOONISTsaloon keeper
SANDESMANambassador or messenger
SAND HOGthose who dug the tunnel under the river
SANDWICHMANwears a sandwich billboard for advertising
SAWYERsaws timber to boards
SAY WEAVERone who made Say, material used for table cloths or bedding
SCAGIOLA MAKERone who made imitation marble
SCALERAKER / SCAVENGERemployed by the parish to clean the streets
SCAPPLERone who roughly shaped the stone prior to being finished by the stonemason
SCAVELMANemployed to keep the waterways and ditches clear
SCHRIMPSCHONGERartisan who carves in bone, ivory, or wood
SCRIBLERa minor or worthless author
SCRIMERfencing master
SCRIVENERclerk, notary
SCOTCH DRAPER / SCOTCHMANsold goods door to door with payment to be made by installments
SCREENERscreened the ore at the mines surface
SCRIBBLERemployed in a scibbling mill where the wool was roughly carded before spinning
SCRIBERemployed at the docks to mark the cotton bales with the approximate weight ready for selling by the brokers
SCRIPTURE READERemployed by the local clergy to go from house to house reading parts of the bible to try and encourage people to attend church, also read scriptures during some services
SCRIVENERwrote out legal documents etc
SCRUTINEERelection judge
SCUTCHERbeat the flax to soften the straw in the bundles
SCULLERY MAIDfemale servant who performed all the menial tasks
SCULLIONmale servant who performed all the menial tasks
SEAL PRESSERemployed in the glass industry to seal the bath against air intake which could spoil the finished surface
SEARCHERcustoms man
SECRET SPRINGERone made watch springs
SEEDSMANsower of seeds
SELF ACTING MINDERone in charge of the automatic spinning mule in the mills
SEMI LORERmaker of leather thongs
SENESCHALA senior steward at the Manor
SEWER HUNTERscavenger who concentrated on the sewers trying to find valuable objects
SEWER RATbricklayer who specialised in making and repairing sewers and tunnels
SEWING CLERKcollector of clothing piecework
SEXTONemployee or officer of a church who cared and upkept church property and sometimes rang bells and dug graves
SHAGREEN CASE MAKERone who worked with shagreen leather
SHANTY MANlumberman
SHARECROPPERtenant farmer who would be paid with part of the crop
SHEARERremoved the fleece from sheep
SHEARGRINDERsharpened shears, scissors
SHEARMAN or SHERMANshearer of cloth, metal
SHEATH MAKERone who made scabbards for swords
SHEEPMANsheep herder
SHINGLERA roof tiler who used wooden tiles (shingles)
SHIP HUSBANDrepairer of ships while in harbour
SHIP MASTERowner or captain of a ship
SHIPWRIGHTconstructor or repairer or ships
SHOE FINDERseller of shoe maker's tools
SHOESMITHcobbler, one who shoed horses
SHOE WIPERservant who polished shoes
SHOT FIRERone in charge of blasting in mines or quarries
SHRAGERone who trimmed and pruned trees
SHUFFLERyardman on the farms
SHUNTERone who moved rolling stock around the railway yards
SHUTTLE MAKERmade the shuttles for the weaving mills
SIDESMANone who assisted the churchwarden
SILK ENGINE TURNERturned the wheel on automatic silk weaving looms
SILK THROWERworker in the silk industry
SILKERsewed the ends of the fabric to prvent the layers from separating
SILK DRESSERprepared the silk for weaving
SILK MERCERsold silk cloth and items made from silk
SILK TWISTERsilk spinner
SILVERSMITHworked with silver
SIZERapplied the size to cloth or worked in a paper mill
SKEPPER / SKELPERone who made and sold beehives
SKINKERtapster in an ale house
SKINNERdealer in hides, mule driver
SKIPMAKERone who made the skips used in mining and quarrying for moving men or materials to the surface
SKIPPERmaster of a ship
SLAPPER / SLAPERone who worked in a pottery preparing the clay for the potter
SLOPSELLERseller of readymade clothes in a slop shop
SLUBBERoperated the machine used to prepare cotton for spinning
SLUBBER DOFFERremoved the bobbins from the spindles in the mills
SMALLWARE MAKERwho made smallware, e.g. tapes, braids etc
SMELTERworker in a metal smelter, smelt fisherman
SMITHmetal worker
SNOBSCATone who repair shoes
SNUFFER MAKERmade the candle snuffer
SOJOURNER CLOTHIERtravelling clothes salesman
SOUTERshoe maker
SPALLIERtin worker who performs chiefly menial tasks
SPERVITERkeeper of sparrows
SPICERgrocer or dealer in spices
SPINNERspins yarn
SPLITTERoperated a splitting machine or one who split things by hand, e.g. stone, timber etc
SPOONERmade spoons
SPURRER or SPURRIERmaker of spurs
SQUIRE(esquire) practitioner of a profession, a gentleman
STALLMANkeeper of a market stall
STAMPMANworker of an ore crushing machine
STATIONERbookseller, seller of paper & writing implements
STAY MAKERcorset maker
STEEPLE JACKERpainted flag poles etc.
STEERSMANship's helmsman
STENTERERoperated the cloth finishing machine
STEP BOYemployed to help passengers to enter or leave the coach
STEVEDORElabourer who unloads and loads ships' cargoes
STEWARDmanager of property, purveyor of supplies or someone who attended passengers on conveyance
STICHERone who does decorative stitching
STOCKINGERknitter, weaver, or dealer in stockings
STOKERtends the fire of an engine boiler
STONEMAN / STONEWARDENa surveyor of highways
STONE PICKERemployed to remove the stones from the farmers fields before planting
STONE WORKERSworked with stone eg masons, quarriers etc
STOREMANone responsible for stored goods
STOWYERone who stowed the nets away on fishing boats
STRAW JOINERone who thatched roofs
STRAW PLAITERone who made straw braids for the hat industry
STREAKERone who prepared the body for burial
STREET ORDERLY / BOYstreet cleaner
STRIKERblacksmiths helper or harpooned the whale
STRIPPERemployed in the woollen trade to remove the rubbish from the carding machines
STRINGERmade the strings for bows
STUFF GOWSMANjunior barrister
STUFF WEAVERwove stuff (the coarse part of flax)
SUCKSMITHone who made ploughshares
SUMNERsummoner or apparitor
SUTLERmerchant or peddler in an army camp
SWAILERmiller or dealer in grain
SWELL MAKERone who made shallow baskets
SWINGLERone who beats flax to remove woody parts
SWORD CUTLERsword maker
TABLERboarding house operator
TACKLERan overlooker of power loom weavers
TAILORone who made or repaired clothes
TALLOW CHANDLERmade or sold candles
TALLY CLERKkept count of goods arriving or departing from warehouses, docks etc
TALLYMAN / TALLYFELLOWone who sold goods that were paid for in installments
TAN BARK STRIPPERcollected the bark that was used in the tanning process
TANNERleather maker
TAPER WEAVERone who made the wicks for candles
TAPITER / TAPICERone who wove worsted cloth
TAPLEYOne who puts the tap in an ale cask
TAPSTERbartender or barmaid
TAR BOYapplied tar (as antiseptic) to sheep when they were nicked by shearers
TASSELERone who made tassels used in furnishings or nobleman
TAWER / TAWYERwhite leather maker
TEAMER / TEAMER MAN / TEAMSTERperson in charge of a team of horses
TEEMERperson who emptied grain from the cart or who poured the molten steel into the moulds
TENTER / TENTERERone who stretched the cloth on a machine while it was drying or looked after and maintained the machine used in the process
THATCHERone who covered roofs with straw or reeds
THIRDBOROUGHan underconstable
THRESHERone who separated the grain from the husks and straw
THROWSTERone in the textile trade who twisted the strands of fibre together into yarn
TICKNEY MAN / WOMANsold earthenware from town to town
TIDE GAUGER / SURVEYORmonitored the state of the tide
TIDESMAN / TIDE WAITERcustoms official
TIEMAKERone who made wooden railway ties
TIGERsmall groom or pageboy in livery
TILERone who put tiles in place either on the roof or floor
TIMES IRONERservant responsible for ironing the daily newspaper
TINKERtravelling repairman
TINNERtin miner, tinsmith
TINTER OR TEINTERartists who performs tinting
TIPPERone who put the metal tips on arrows etc
TIPPLERkept an ale house
TIREWOMANfemale dresser, especially in the theatre
TOBACCO SPINNERmaker of cigars
TODHUNTERemployed by the parish to hunt foxes
TOE RAGwho worked at the docks as a corn porter
TOILINET MANUFACTURERmade toilinet (a kind of quilting)
TOLLER / TOLLGATE KEEPER / TOLLIE / TOLMAN / TURNPIKE KEEPERworked at the toll gate to collect fees for use of the road
TONSORLatin for barber
TOOL HELVERmade tool handles
TOPMANsailor who works in the ship's rigging
TOP SAWYERupper man in a saw pit
TOPSMANhead cattle drover
TOUCH HOLERone who worked in the gun manufacturing industry
TOW CARD MAKERone who made tow cards, used in the textile industry
TOWN CHABERLAINone who looked after the towns affairs
TOWN CRIERone who made public announcements in the streets
TOWN HUSBANDemployed by the parish to collect the money from the fathers of illegitimate children for their upkeep
TOWNSWAITERcustoms man
TOZERworked in the wool mills employed to tose or tease the cloth
TRAMMERyoung person who worked in the mines
TRANQUETERperson who made hoops
TRAPPERemployed in the mines to open and shut the doors for the miners
TREEN MAKERmade domestic articles from wood
TREENAIL MAKERone who made the long wooden pins used in shipbuilding
TRENCHERMAKERmade wooden boards or platters for serving food from or cutting and slicing food on
TREPANGERone who used a circular saw to cut timber
TRIMMERtrims a ship by re-arranging its cargo
TRONERweighing official at the markets
TRUGGERone who made long shallow baskets
TUBBERone who made tubs and barrels ie a cooper
TUBMANEnglish barrister
TUCKERcleaner of cloth goods
TUCKER INmaid who attended the bedroom and "tucked in the bedclothes"
TURNERgymnast, lathe worker
TURNKEYprison warder or jail keeper
TURNSPITone who operated the spit handle
TWEENIE / TWEENYmaid who worked "between the stairs" she assisted the cooks and the housemaids
TWISTER / TWISTERERone who operated the machine used for twisting yarns and threads together
TWIST HANDone who operated a lace machine
ULNAGERone appointed to examine the quality of woollen goods to be sold
UPHOLDERupholsterer and also a seller of secondhand goods
UPRIGHT WORKERchimney sweep
VALETmale servant that attended a nobleman or gentleman
VALUATORwho valued objects
VASSALservant of the lowest order
VATMANone who put the paper pulp into the moulds in paper-making industry or worked with vats e.g. in beer and wine making
VERDERERofficial in charge of the royal forest
VERGERone who worked with the priest in the running the church
VERGE MAKERone who made the spindles used in clocks and watches
VESTMENTMAKERone who made the gowns worn by priests
VICTUALERseller of food/drink
VIEWERone who worked at the mines in a managerial capacity
VILLEINone who paid dues to the lord of the manor in return for use of the land
VINTAGERgrape farmer, wine maker
VINTNER / VINTERwine merchant
VIRGINAL PLAYERplayer of a musical instrument similar to a harpsichord
WADSETTERunder Scottish law a creditor to whom a wadset is made; a wadset is a right, by which lands, or other heritable subjects, are impignorated by the proprietor to his creditor in security of his debt
WAGONERwagon or cart driver
WAILERone employed in the mines to remove the impurities from the coal
WAINWRIGHTbuilder or repairer of wagons
WAIT / WAKEMANnight watchman
WALLERone who built walls either brick or dry stone, also a person who worked making coarse salt
WARDER -in charge of prisoners
WAREHOUSEMANin charge of or employee in a warehouse
WARPERset the warp thread on the looms or employed to move boats by hauling on the warps (the ropes attached to the boats)
WARRENERin charge of a portion of land used for breeding rabbits and other small game
WASHMANtin coater
WASTEMANchecked the old workings for gas and maintaining them in the mines or employed to remove waste
WATCH FINISHERassembled watches and clocks
WATCHMANtown official who guarded the streets at night
WATER BAILIFFofficial in charge of the fishing rights on a stretch of water
WATER CARRIERcarted and sold fresh water
WATER GILDERtrapped water fowl
WATER LEADER / LEDER / LODERtransported and sold fresh drinking water
WATERMANworked with or on boats usually on rivers
WATTLE HURDLE MAKERmade a type of fence from wattle to keep the sheep in
WAY-MAKERemployed to make roads
WAY MANsurveyor of roads
WEBSTER / WEBBERweaver (originally a female weaver)
WEIGHERworked on the docks to weigh the cargo as it was unloaded
WELLMASTERone in charge of the local well with the responsibility of ensuring clean water for the village
WELL SINKERdug wells
WELL WRIGHTmade the winding equipment used to raise the bucket in the well
WET GLOVERmade leather gloves
WET NURSEwoman employed to suckle tthe child of another (common practice with the rich)
WETTERdampened paper during the printing process or in the glass industry who detached the glass by wetting
WHARFINGERowner of a wharf
WHEEL TAPPERrailway worker who checked for cracked wheels by striking them with a long handled hammer and listening for a clear ring
WHEELERwheel maker, attended to the spinning wheel in the textile industry and one who led the pit ponies that pulled the tubs underground in the mines
WHACKERhorse or oxen team driver
WHEELWRIGHT / WRIGHTmaker or repairer of wagon wheels
WHEERYMANin charge of a wherry (a small light rowing boat)
WHIGhorse driver (Scottish term)
WHIPPERINmanaged the hounds in a hunt
WHITEARhide cleaner
WHITE LIMERplastered walls using lime and water plaster
WHITE SMITHtin smith
WHITENING ROLL MAKERmade the whitening used in whitening walls of cottages
WHITTAWERone who made saddles and harness
WHITENER / WHITESTER / WHITSTERone who bleached cloth
WHITSTERbleacher of cloth
WHITTAWERpreparer of white leather
WILLOW PLAITER / WEAVERone who made baskets etc
WINDSTERsilk winder
WOODBREAKERone who made wooden water casks
WOODRANGER / WOOD REEVE / WOODWARDin charge of the forest or woods
WOOLCOMBERoperated machines that separate the fibres ready for spinning in woollen industry
WOOL DRIVERone who brought the wool to market
WOOL FACTORwool merchants agent
WOOLEN BILLY PIECERworked in the woollen mills to piece together the broken yarns
WOOL MAN /WOOL SORTER / STAPLERone who sorted the wool into different grades
WOOLSTED MANa seller of woollen cloth (from worsted man)
WOOL WINDERone who made up balls of wool for selling
WRIGHTbuilder or repairer
XYLOGRAPHERone who used and made wooden blocks used in printing illustrations
YARDMANrail road yard worker
YATMANgate keeper
YEARMANone contracted to work for a year
YEOMANfarmer who owns his own land
ZINCOGRAPHERdesigner who etched in relief a pattern on zinc plates used for printing
ZITHERISTplayer of a simple, flat many-stringed instrument
ZOOGRAPHERdescribed and classified species of animals