A Present for a Servant-Maid: Preparing Food
Now, that you may not disgrace your Marketing, and spoil by bad dressing what you have well catered, take the following Rules, which, without being ordered to the contrary, by those who love their Victuals over much or over little done, you ought not to trangress in.
Boiling Butchers Meat.
Beef.] Let your Pot be large enough to contain a suffient Quantity of Water for it to have Room to wabble about, and be sure, before you put it on, to make up a good strong Fire, so as it may never cease boiling from the Minute it begins, till it is thoroughly done, As for the Time of boiling, you may allow a Quarter of an Hour to every Pound of Beef, except Brisket, which requires more by Reason of its being so very fibrous.
Mutton.] Mutton takes not up so altogether so much Time nor Water, yet it must not be cramped so in too small a Pot; for if it is, it will be tough, and the Colour spoiled. If you make Broth, put in no more Water than will just cover it, and after you have taken the Scum off, (which must be raised by throwing in some Salt) and put in what Thickening the Family likes, whether Rice, Barley, or Oatmeal, let it be close stopped till enough.
Veal.] A great Inducement to the eating heartily, of boiled Veal, is the Whiteness of it: You should therefore not only be particularly careful in taking off the Scum, but also tie the Meat in a Cloth, and the Skin will then look of a delicate Clearness.
Lamb.] The same Care ought to be taken of Lamb, especially House, for it, being of a more delicate Texture than the Grass, is more liable to imbibe any disagreeable Tincture. Both ought to be well boiled, as indeed should all young Meat, or it is unwholesome.
Pork.] Pork requires still more boiling, and should never be dressed without salting, for there is a Juice , between the Rind and the Fat, which, if not well purged out, breeds bad Humours.
Turkey.] Three Quarters of an Hour is sufficient for a middling Turkey; but you must always consult the Largeness, and give Time accordingly.
Pullets, Capons, and young Cocks.] Pullets, especially if with Egg, take somewhat more boiling, than either a young Cock or Capon; for the two latter, half an Hour is sufficient, and you must not add to the other above four Minutes. When you boil Fowl and Bacon, you must be sure to scrape the Rind exceeding clean, and pare off the Outside of the Lean, which in the best cured Bacon has an offensive Smell and Taste, and boil the Fowl in a Cloth.
An old Cock.] You can scarce boil an old Cock too much; but as it is seldom used but in Broth, the best Way is to cut it in Pieces.
Chicken.] A Quarter of an Hour is sufficient for a Chicken; if you have Parsley and Butter with it, let the Parsley be boiled soft, and shred very small before you put it into the Butter.
Pidgeon.] When you have well cleaned and trussed your Pidgeons, stuff their Bellies with Parsley, and be sure to take off the Scum as it rises. A little mores than a Quarter of an Hour serves to boil them.
Take it for a general Rule, that whatever you boil either of Flesh or Fowl, should be set over a brisk Fire, to the End it may keep constantly in Motion, for if it ceases, tho' never so little a Time, the Gravy drains out into the Water.
Salmon.] Wash it, and let it bleed well in the Water, then lie a little to drain, after which put it into boiling Water; take out the Liver when about three Parts done, and braid it with Ketchup, which, mingled with the Butter, will make exceeding rich Sauce. This Sort of Fish takes almost as much boiling as Mutton.
Pike.] Wash your Pike clean, then truss it round with the Tail in its Mouth, and its Back scotched in three Places, then throw it into boiling Water with a good deal of Salt and Vinegar, three or four Blades of Mace, and the Peel of a whole Lemon.
Let it boil fast at first; for that will make the Pike eat firm, but more slow afterwards. The Time rnust be proportioned to the Bigness of the Fish, but half an Hour is enough for a very large one. The best Sauce for this is plain Butter, with a few Shrimps and Seville Orange.
Fresh Cod.] Mix a great deal of the best White wine Vinegar with the Water in which you boil Fresh Cod, Lemon-Peel, Salt, Mace and Cloves, otherwise the Fish will taste waterish, be very flabby, and liable to break in the Kettle. The Sauce for this cannot be too rich, and if you are allowed it, spare neither Ketchup, the Body of a Lobster or Crab, Oisters and Shrimps; but if you have not all these at hand, put in as many of them as you can. You will know when it is enough, as you may all Fish, by the dropping out of the eyes.
Barrel Cod, or any other salt Fish.] All Kinds of salt Fish must lie in Water proportionable to its Saltness : Trust not therefore to the Words of those you buy it of, but taste a Bit of one of the Flakes. This requires more boiling than any Fresh Fish. The sauce for it is Butter, Eggs, Mustard, and Parsnips or Potatoes.
Roasting Butchers Meat.
Beef.] When you roast Beef, make up a strong lasting Fire, that it may penetrate into the Heart of the Meat, else the Inside will be raw when the Outside is over-done. When you think it is near enough, make your Fire burn brisker in order to, brown it, Rub a good deal of Salt upon it before you lay it down, and while it is roasting baste it often with its own Dripping, and flour it well. The Time for roasting is the same with that of boiling, a Matter Of an Hour to every Pound of Meat.
Mutton.] All joints of Mutton, except a Leg, require a brisker Fire than Beef. Baste it with Butter; and flour it often, but, if it be very large, and you suspect it to be Ram Mutton, baste it well on first laying it down with' Water and Salt, and that will take off the Rankness. You must abate somewhat of a Quarter of an Hour for each Pound, especially when you roast a Shoulder or Neck.
Lamb and Veal.] All young Meats, as before observed, ought to be thoroughly done, therefore do not take either Lamb or Veal off the Spit till you see they drop White Gravy.
Pork.] Pork should lie twelve Hours at least in Salt, before you put it down to roast; then flour it well, but a very little basting will serve, except you roast it without cutting the Skin, and then you must keep it basting and turning very fast, as you would do a Pig, to preserve it from blistering, or parting from the Flesh.
This is a very luscious Meat, and requires the same Time as Beef, and as strong a Fire, for it will be pernicious if eaten with Gravy in it that has the least Tincture of Redness. The most common, as well as most wholesome Sauce is Apple-Sauce, and Mustard.
Pig.] Take Sage shred very small, grated Bread, Salt, a little Pepper, and the Yolk of four Eggs, wet them well with VVhite-wine till they come to a Consistency; then put them into the Belly of the Pig : Sew it up, and, after having rubb'd the Skin over with Butter, put it on the Spit: Keep it continually basting and rubbing with clean Cloths, and turning very fast till it is enough. An Hour will roast a middling Pig; if large, you must allow more Time.
When it is done, take the Pudding out of the Belly, mix it with Gravy, and the Brains of the Pig: Sweet Sauce is to be made the same way, only add a few Currants, some Sugar, Nutmeg, and a little White-wine.
Capon.] Thirty Minutes will roast the largest Capon you can buy, provided your Fire be strong and brisk. Keep it well basted, and let it turn moderately fast. The best Sauce is rich Gravy, well relished with Spice and Ricamboll or Challotte.
Pullet with Eggs, or without.] A Pullet with Eggs will take somewhat more roasting than a Capon: Egg Sauce is most proper, and most commonly eaten with it. If she be without Egg she will take less Time in roasting than the Capon. Gravy Sauce is also best with this.
Chicken.] A Quarter of an Hour will roast a handsome well-grown Chicken. The Sauce is Parsley and Butter.
Tame-Duck] Shred some Sage and Onion very small, mix it with Pepper and Salt, and put it into the Belly of the Duck: when it is enough done, take out the Stuffing, and mingle it with a good deal of Claret and Gravy for Sauce.
Goose] A Goose Gravy exactly the same Seasoning as a Duck: The Sauce in the Dish must also be the same but you must add a Plate of Apple-Sauce, and set Mustard and Sugar for those that like it. '
Turkey.] A Turkey _must be well floured and basted, and roasted with a strong Fire, especially if the Belly be stuffed with Oisters; in that case you must take out the Oisters as soon as it comes off the Spit, and put them into melted Butter mix'd with Gravy. If there be no Oisters less Time will roast it, and you must put no Butter to your Gravy.
Wild-fowl.] When you roast a Wild-Duck or any other Wild-fowl, you should make your Spit very hot before you put them on; otherwise the Inside will be raw, and the Outside too much done and dry; They must all in general be perpetually basted with Butter and their own Dripping. The Sauce you make for a Tame-Duck serves for all kind of Wild-fowl except a Partridge, which must be basted with Butter, and strew'd with grated Bread, and the Sauce made of grated Bread, Yolks of Eggs, White-wine, and Gravy well spiced.
Hare.] A Hare is best when it is larded, but if this is not thought proper, you must at least make a Pudding of grated Bread, the Liver of the Hare, minced small, Parsley, Thyme, Winter-Savory, sweet Marjoram, Salt, Pepper, a few Cloves beaten, three Yolks of Eggs, and well wetted with Claret, and put it into the Belly, which after you have sew'd up so that none may fall out, put it on the Spit ; baste it with Cream till it is half done, then with its own Dripping, but take Care to keep it always moist. Mix half a Pint of Claret with very strong and high-seasoned Gravy for Sauce. It will take an Hour to roast.
Rabbits.] Baste your Rabbits well with Butter; about forty Minutes is sufficient to keep them at the Fire, which should be brisk, but not too strong. The Sauce is only melted Butter, with the Liver minc'd small.
Beef.] Brisket-Beef, Thick-flank, or the Chuck-Rib, are best for stewing: Cut it in Pieces of about four or five Ounces each ; put it into an Earthen Pipkin, with a few Turnips, one Carrot, one whole Onion, and little Thyme, Winter-Savory, Sweet-Marjoram, Parsley, some Corns of Jamaica Pepper, Salt, and Black-Pepper, and three or four Bay Leaves; then put as much Water as will a little more than cover them; stop it very close to keep any Steam as much as possible from going out, and set over a slow Fire, so that it may but just simmer. If it be Brisket, it will take four Hours to do it right; if any other Part, three will be suffient. When it is enough, take out the Bay Leaves, and serve up the rest altogether in a Soup Dish.
Neck, Breast, Knuckle, or any other Joint of Veal.] Whatever Joint of Veal is to be stewed, must be put whole into a Stew-pan, with Parsley, Winter-Savor, Thyme, Sweet-Marjoram, Lemon-Peel, Mace, Nutmeg, a little Salt, and Pepper. Mix some White wine with the Water, and put no more than will just cover it, then stop it close, and put it over a very slow Fire; when it is enough, beat up the Yolks of three or four Eggs, and incorporate them with the Gravy that comes from it, and when you have put it in the Dish, strew a fews Mushrooms, Capers, and a little Samphire over, and garnish with Lemon or Seville Orange. You may also add Truffles, Morelles, Coxcombs, and Artichoak Bottoms, if you have them.
This is a very delicate and savoury Dish, and pleases most Palates.
Neck, Breast, or any other Joint of Mutton.] Some People like Mutton stewed with Potatoes; and if so, you must cut the Mutton in Chops, and slice your Potatoes ; put a larger quantity of Salt and Pepper than you do either with Beef or Veal, and a very little Water; because what comes from the Potatoes, when they have been a little Time on the Fire, will stew the Mutton. You must put in no Herbs, except a Bunch of Thyme, and, after covering it close, let it just simmer ; an Hour and a half will do it thorroughly, provided no Steam evaporates.
To stew Mutton without Potatoes, you must also cut it in Chops, or Collops, according as the Part is, and put in two or three urneps, Thyme, Parsley, Salt, Pepper, a small Onion, and as much Water as will cover it, and when done, strew it over with Capers.
Of Veal.] Cut your Veal in thin slices, beat it well with a Rolling-pin; then season it with Pepper, Salt, Nutmeg, Thyme, and Lemon-Peel, shred very small; fry it in Butter, and when it is enough, as it will be in six Minutes, pour away the Butter it is fry'd in, and throw in fresh, with two Eggs well beaten, and two Spoonfuls of Verjuice; shake it up altogether, and then serve it.
Of Lamb.] Lamb must also be cut into small Pieces, then seasoned with a little Pepper and Salt, fry'd first in Water, and, after being well floured, in Butter. It requires longer Time than Veal; when enough done, pour off that Butter, and put in fresh, with two Eggs, and a very little Verjuice. Strew it in the Dish with Mushrooms.
Chicken.] Cut off the Limbs of your Chickens and joint them, and the Breast in thin Slices, and dislocate all the Bones, leaving a very little Flesh on them; fry them in Water, then pour off the Water, and save it, then fry them in Butter till they are of a fine brown: Beat the Yolks of Eggs, a little Pepper, Salt, and enough of pickled Walnut to give it a Flavour; mix all these well with the Water you pour'd off, and put it into the Stew-Pan over the Chickens; let it just boil up, and it is ready. If you add Truffles, Morelles, or Coxcombs, they must go in with it. Strew the Fricasey in the Dish with Mushrooms. Rabbits are to be done in the very same Manner.
Plumb-Pudding common.] Take a Quarter of a Peck of the best Wheat-Flour, three Pound of fine Beef Suet, well picked from the Skins and Strings, and shred very small, two Pound of Currants, rubbed in a dry clean Cloth ; twelve Eggs, the White of half left out, one Pennyworth of Saffron ; a Glass of Brandy and a little beaten Ginger ; mix them in as much new Milk as it will require for a moderate Thickness, and stir it well together ; then tie it up in a Cloth, and put it into boiling Water. You must take care to turn it often when it first goes in, that the Currants may not fall to the Bottom, and keep it constantly boiling. It will be five Hours to do it as it ought.
Plain Pudding common.] Plain Pudding is made the same way, and with the same Ingredients, excepting the Currants, and abating one Pound of Suet; it must also boil as long.
Rich Puddding.] To a Quarter of a Peck of Flour, Put four Pound of Marrow, four Pound of Currants, the Yolk bf twenty-four Eggs, and the White of six, one Pennyworth of Saffron steeped in a Gill of the best Canary, a little beaten Ginger, Three Ounces of candy'd Citron of Lemon and Orange Peel, each an Ounce, cut in thin small Bits; and Well mixed and stirred in new Milk.
Quaking Pudding.] Take the Crumb of a Kingston Loaf, or six French Rolls, slice them, and put them in an Earthen Pan; put to them a Quart of boiling Milk; cover it, and let it stand till it is quite cold, then put in two Ounces of pounded Almonds, a Glass of Sack, four Eggs, two Ounces of double refined Sugar, then tye it in a Cloth, and boil it half an Hour; When you have taken it up, pour Butter melted with Sack over it, squeeze a Seville Orange, and strew it thick with Sugar, to make it look more beautiful, you may stick here and there a Sugar'd Almond.
Tansey Pudding.] For a Tansey Pudding you must take a Pound of Flour, the same Quantity of grated Bread, twelve Eggs, six Ounces of double-refined Sugar, a Gill of Sack, then press out the Juice of Spinage one Spoonful, and of Tansey half a Spoonful, and mix them well together with Cream. You may either bake it or fry it in a Pan. Squeeze Seville Orange over it, and strew it thick with Sugar.
Common bak'd Puddings are to be made the same way with the boiled.
Beef-stake Pye.] Rump-stakes are fittest for a Pye, because most tender. If you use any other Part, beat them well with a Rolling-pin. Season them with Pepper and Salt, according to the Palate the Pye is made for. To every Pound of Flour for the Crust, you must take the same Quantity of Butter, but work no more than half up with the Paste ; the other you must spread over it with your Knife in the Rolling, then fold it, spread it again, and so on until all the Butter is expended; Make your Crust thick, and as many times as you roll it, so many Flakes it will break in when it is baked, and eat as well as if you did it with Whites of Eggs.
Mutton, Lamb, and Veal Pyes are all to be seasoned the same way, except the two latter are to be made sweet, for which take the Following Rule.
Lamb or Veal Pyes sweet.] Cut your Lamb or Veal in Collops, then season them with Salt, Pepper, Nutmeg, and Lemon-Peel; put to every Pound of Meat a Quarter of a Pound of Currants, and a few stoned Raisins; some make a Caudle of Canary and Eggs, and pour it in when the Pye is cut up, but this is superfluous.
Minc'd Pye.] The best Minc'd Pye is made of Neats Tongues or Hearts, which parboil, and then chop very small with an equal Quantity of Beef Suet nicely picked. Put of Currants and stoned Raisins as many Pound as you have of Meat, and to every Pound add an Apple, the sharpest you can get. Mix a little White-wine or Canary with the Mace, and some thin Slices of Citron.
Apple Pye.] With every six Apples you put into your Pye, join one Quince. When you have pared them, and taken out the Cores and Bruises very clean, cut them in small Bits, and throw in a large Quantity of Sugar, so that the Fruit shall seem buryed; break a stick of Cinnamon, and scatter it, with a few Cloves here and there.
Gooseberry, Cherry, and Currant Pyes have nothing but Sugar mingled with the Fruit,
Custard.] Take a Quart of Cream and boil it with a little Cinnamon, then beat the Yolk of eight Eggs and four Whites, and when your Cream is almost cold, put in your Eggs, stir them well together, and sweeten it with six Ounces of Sugar; then pour it into little China Dishes, and bake it.
Cheese-cake.] The common way is to make Cheese-cakes of Curd taken from Milk turned with Runnet, but the surest way to have them good, is to have it turned with White-wine, which, if enough is put into the Milk when hot, will make a Curd hard enough for your Purpose. Boil Cinnamon in it before you pour in the Wine, but sweeten it afterward when you have taken off the Curd, and pressed it to a moderate Dryness; add more Sugar, and a good quantity of Currants, mix them well together, then fill your Crust, and put five or six small Bits of Citron in every Cheese-cake, and send them to the Oven. I need not tell you that the Paste must be made very rich.
Seed-cake.] Take three Pound of the best Flour, wet it with Milk, and put to it the Yolk of twenty four Eggs, and twelve Whites, one pound and a half of fresh Butter, half a pound of Sugar, and two Ounces of Carraway Seeds, a little beaten Ginger and some Cinnamon, knead it well and bake it, and it will be a very good Cake. To have it richer you need only double the Quantity of Butter, and some sliced Citron and Orange-Peel.
Flour Pancake.] Take two Pound of the best Flour, the Crum of a French Roll grated, the Yolks of ten Eggs, and the Whites of five, well beat; then mix them with a Quart of new Milk, in which a little Bit of Saffron has been infused, throw in some powdered Ginger and Nutmeg: After stirring it till it is very smooth, so that there is not the least Lump, cover your Batter up, and let it stand for two Hours before you put it into the Pan, then pour in sufficient to make the Pancake of a moderate Thickness: Let your Butter be well melted, your Pan very hot before you put it in; keep it shaking round to prevent it from sticking, till you toss it; then add more Butter, and when it is fryed crisp, lay it on a Dish, and squeeze Seville Orange over it and strew it with Sugar.
Clary Pancake.] Beat twenty Eggs, Whites and all, then take as much Clary as, when shred exceeding small, will equal the Quantity of the Eggs; mix them together with three Spoonfuls of Flour, and as much Milk as will just make it pour; add powdered Cinnamon, Ginger and Nutmeg, fry it as you do a common Pancake, and when done squeeze seville Orange, and strew Sugar over it.
Fritters.] To every Spoonful of Flour you allow for your Fritters, you must take the Yolk of an Egg, and as much Cream, beat all well up together with some Ginger, Cinnamon, and Nutmeg, finely powdered then let it stand. Pare some of the best and sharpest Apples you can get, and cut them into small Pieces, but do not put them into your Batter till you are ready to fry it. Let your Pan be half full of Hogs-lard, and as soon as it boils up, throw in the Batter by a large Spoonful at a Time, and these will be excellent Fritters. When you have taken them up, squeeze Seville Orange, and strew Sugar over them.
Bacon Fraise.] The Batter for a Bacon Fraise must be made exactly the same as for a Pancake, only of somewhat more Consistency. After having pared all the Rind and rusty Part of the Bacon clean off, cut it in very thin Rashers, lay it in the Pan with a good deal of Butter, and when it is hot pour the Batter over it. Hold it a good Height above the Fire, that it may not scorch before the Heat penetrates quite through it, and keep it shaking round to prevent it from sticking. You cannot toss a Fraise, and must be particularly careful in turning it, that it may not crack in those Places where the Bacon lies.
Amlet.] Take the Yolks of twelve Eggs, and the Whites of eight, beat them very well, then shred an Handful of young Spinage, Parsley, Winter Savory about half the Quantity each, a little Sweet Marjoram and Thyme; season it well with Pepper and Salt, and a few beaten Cloves; for those that love Onion, you may put in enough just to give it a Relish. Stir them all well together, and fry it in fresh Butter; but take care not to over-do it, for it will then be tough,
Bacon with Eggs.] Cut all the Rind, and so much of Lean as you see has a yellowish Cast, clean off your Bacon, then put it into your Pan, and when you have turned it, break in your Eggs, taking Care that the one does not stick to the other; when they have lain about half a Minute, turn them one by one with your Slice, let them lie half a Minute more and take them up: Pour Vinegar, and shake some Pepper over them in the Dish before you serve it up. But the best way of eating Bacon with Eggs is to broil the one, and poach the other, laying one Egg over each Rasher of Bacon, and then pour Vinegar and strew Pepper as you do when they are fryed.